Cryptographic techniques are methods used to secure information and communications from unauthorized access or modification. These techniques use mathematical algorithms and protocols to protect data in transit or at rest.
One common cryptographic technique is encryption, which is the process of converting plaintext into ciphertext. The ciphertext can only be read or deciphered with the correct key or password. Encryption is used to protect sensitive data such as personal information, financial transactions, and government secrets.
Another cryptographic technique is hashing, which is the process of transforming data into a fixed-length output called a hash value or message digest. Hashing is used to verify the integrity of data, as any changes made to the data will result in a different hash value. Hashing is also used in password storage, as the actual password is not stored but instead its hash value is stored.
Digital signatures are another cryptographic technique used to ensure the authenticity and integrity of digital messages. A digital signature is created by applying a mathematical algorithm to a message using a private key. The recipient can verify the signature using the sender’s public key to ensure that the message has not been tampered with and was indeed sent by the sender.
Overall, cryptographic techniques play a critical role in protecting sensitive information and communications in various fields such as finance, healthcare, government, and national security.